CNC Machining Fundamentals
CNC Machining Fundamentals

FOR COMPANIES WITH A MANDATE TO CONTROL MANUFACTURING COSTS AND CAPITAL EXPENDITURES.
MACHINE TOOLS RUNNING EFFICIENTLY AND PRODUCING GOOD PARTS.
QUANTIFIABLE RESULTS WITH CHECKS AND BALANCES.
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EXPERIENCE EARNED THROUGH EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PRACTICE.
Manufacturing Alliance Associates, Inc.
720 Maple Street, East Aurora, New York 14052-1012   716-652-4510   info@mfgaa.com
[Standardization]: ''development and implementation of concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility, interchangeability or commonality.''

Machining Cost - do the math - (it's only industrial engineering fundamentals and simple algebra).
Financial equations for analyzing machining performance.
  • Standard hours = base time + allowances
  • Actual hours = standard hours / efficiency
  • Efficiency = standard hours / actual hours
  • Paid hours = actual hours + delays
  • Yield = standard hours / paid hours
  • Paid hours = standard hours / yield
  • Utilization = actual hours / paid hours

  • CNC Machining Parameter - (feed, speed, depth-of-cut, horsepower, cutting tool material & geometry).

    Fundamental working knowledge in machining principles. Emphasis on material removal processes performed on computerized numerically controlled (CNC) lathes and machining centers. Detailed information illustrated for selecting the following operating conditions: feed, speed, depth-of-cut, horsepower, cutting tool material and geometry. Comprehensive machining data reference material.

    2 Volume, 2,304 page Machining Data Handbook containing information related to cutting conditions based on a wide variety of workpiece materials, machining operations and tooling materials. These texts are the accepted standard of the industry. This 2 volume set is from the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Sciences, Inc. IAMS is a not-for-profit national information analysis center for applied research, development and testing. Their mission is to enhance the competitiveness of companies by accelerating the implementation of technology and improving business practices, drawing upon the resources of industry, academia and government.

    Their CutData software is the Machining Data Handbook for a multi-task Windows environment, containing the most comprehensive listing of feeds, speeds, power requirements and metal removal rates in the world.
    Fundamental formulas to derive the machining parameters based on the work piece material type and condition.

    Machining Setup Reduction - (simply make the observations in your environment, you'll be surprised).
    Fundamental direct and indirect labor tasks performed in cnc machining operations.
    A simple definition of setup time is the total base tasks plus allowance factors for the time it takes to go from the last piece in the present work order to the first good piece in the next work order.
    Setup time can range from 5% to 95% of the time applied to a work order.  The percentage increases as the lot size decreases, significantly effects the unit cost of each part in a work.

    To go from one work order to the next on a CNC machine tool the following tasks generally occurs: The machine is down while the above tasks are performed.  These can be defined as on-line tasks.

    Tasks performed while the machine is producing good parts can be defined as off-line tasks.  These tasks include programming and searching for tools, gages and fixtures for the next work order while the machine is running.  The smaller the lot size, the harder it is to perform off-line tasks, and the fewer the people available in the overhead structure, the more tasks are performed on-line.

    Based on the definition of these tasks, setup time can be defined as the total of the on-line tasks.  Three methods of reducing setup time are:

    Before starting a CNC setup time reduction program, first dedicate time, effort and people to evaluate and document your current setup procedures. Next, weigh the cost of implementing any of the following recommendations to remove wasted time:

    1. Apply CNC technology on-line.

    2. Move on-line tasks off-line. 3. Facilitate on-line tasks.
    Machining Statistical Process Control
    Fundamental capability measurement of the machining operation process.


    Machining Hourly Rate
    Appling today's technology without Model-T Ford accounting practices.



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